Periodontal Vaccines-A systematic Review
Background: vaccination is the best known application of immunology to human health. Effective vaccines have successfully eradicated the prevalence of several infectious diseases that were common less than a generation ago. The success of Periodontal vaccines is still elusive due to the complexity of periodontal pathogens that have multiple serotypes. No periodontal vaccine trials have satisfied all the requirements such as preventing colonization of pathogens, protection against tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss, elicit immunoglobulins for phagocytosis, stimulation of T-helper cells. This review aims to discuss the various immunization strategies attempted so far. Aim: this review aims to discuss the various in-vitro and in-vivo studies that present supporting evidence for the feasibility of formulating a prophylactic periodontal vaccine that could emerge as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the future. Material and Methods: An extensive literature Search was performed in electronic databases, such as PUBMED, Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Google scholar and science direct using various search terms such as “ periodontal vaccines”, “ porphyromonas gingivalis”, “chronic periodontitis”, ” genomic vaccine ”, “ recombinant vaccine”, “immune response” ," vaccination against periodontal bacteria". No limits and language restriction were applied during the electronic search to include all the possible animal studies , clinical trials in the potential relevant article search phase of the systematic review. Conclusion: Studies evaluating Porphyromonas gingivalis are the most common and the structures showing the most potential as a vaccine candidate are Outer membrane proteins, fimbriae and gingipains, the structure having the least potential is Lipopolysaccharide.
Periodontitis; Vaccine; Virulence; Gingipains; Immune response; Animal studies.