Anatomic characterization of mentual foramen in dentate and edentulous regions with Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT).

Sergio Lucio Pereira de Castro Lopes, Iara Santos Quadros da Costa Donato, Afonso Celso Souza de Assis, Mari Eli Leonelli de Moraes, Luiz Roberto Coutinho Manhães Jr, Thiago de Oliveria Gamba

Abstract


Objective: To characterize and compare the positions and dimensions of the mental foramen (MF) openings between dentate and edentulous areas on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Material and Methods: Seventy-two CBCT images (i-CAT Next Generation, Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) of the mandible were analyzed. The CBCT images were divided into two groups: Group D (dentate) -  with first and second mandibular premolars; Group E (edentulous) - without first and second mandibular premolars. At the transversal cuts, two measurements were obtained: MF height – the vertical distance between the lowest point of the mandibular canal to the external cortical of the mandible’s base (MFIH); MF opening – the greatest vertical distance between the superior and inferior MF external corticals (AbMF). Also, in Group D, the MF position was studied in relation to four landmarks: 1st premolar, between 1st and 2nd premolar; 2nd premolar; and other locations. Independent sample t-test and descriptive analysis were applied. Results: Only the distance AbMF showed statistically significant difference between groups, with tendency towards increasing in group D. Group E exhibited statistically significant difference between genders for the distance AbMF, with tendency towards greater values for males. Group D showed that MF was more frequently located at the area of the 2nd premolars (65.9%), while the area of the 1st premolars was that of smallest frequency (4.9%). Conclusion: the edentulism only reduced the dimension of MF opening. Edentulous males had a greater MF opening than edentulous females.

Keywords: Cone beam computed tomography; Mandible; Anatomy, Regional; Anatomic variation.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14295/bds.2016.v19i4.1305