Photodynamic inactivation of planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans using erythrosine irradiated by LED
Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) with erythrosine (E), using a light-emitting diode (LED) on planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods: A Streptococcus mutans strain (UA 159) was used to prepare the suspensions containing 107 cells/mL, which was tested under different experimental conditions: a) LED irradiation in the presence of erythrosine as a photosensitizer (E+L+); b) LED irradiation only (P-L+); c) treatment with erythrosine only (E+L-); and d) no LED irradiation or photosensitizer (P) treatment, which served as a control group (P-L-). After treatment, strains were seeded onto MSBS agar for determination of the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). Results: The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the Tukey test (p < 0.05). No reduction in the number of CFU/mL was observed in the treatment group with erythrosine (E+L+) when compared to the control (P-L-). Conclusion: PDI using erythrosine did not reduce the number of CFUs per millimeter within the parameters in this study.
Erythrosine; Decay; Photodynamic inactivation; Light-emitting diode.
Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay, Microbiological reviews 1986;50(4):353-80.
Hamilton IR, Buckley ND. Adaptation by Streptococcus mutans to acid tolerance, Oral microbiology and immunology 1991;6(2):65-71.
Bowden GHW. Which bacteria are cariogenic in humans? In: Dental Caries: Markers of High and Low Risk Groups and Individuals. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1991.
Sansone C, Van Houte J, Joshipura K, Kent R, Margolis HC. The association of mutans streptococci and non-mutans streptococci capable of acidogenesis at a low pH with dental caries on enamel and root surfaces. J Dent Res. 1993;72(2):508-16.
Svensater G, Welin J, Wilkins JC, Beighton D, Hamilton IR. Protein expression by planktonic and biofilm cells of Streptococcus mutans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 Nov 27;205(1):139-46.
O'Toole GA, Kolter R. Initiation of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 proceeds via multiple, convergent signalling pathways: a genetic analysis. Mol Microbiol. 1998 May;28(3):449-61.
Soukos NS, Goodson JM. Photodynamic therapy in the control of oral biofilms. Periodontol 2000. 2011 Feb;55(1):143-66
Bowden GH, Hamilton IR. Survival of oral bacteria. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1998;9(1):54-85.
Featherstone JD. The science and practice of caries prevention. J Am Dent Assoc 2000;131(7):887-99.
Featherstone JD. The continuum of dental caries-evidence for a dynamic disease process. J Dent Res. 2004;83 Spec No C:C39-42.
Caufield PW, Griffen AL. Dental caries. An infectious and transmissible disease. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2000 Oct;47(5) 1001-19.
Lee YH, Park HW, Lee JH, Seo HW, Lee SY. The photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans biofilms using erythrosine and dental halogen curing unit. Int J Oral Sci 2012;4(4):196-201.
Pereira CA, Costa AC, Carreira CM, Junqueira JC, Jorge AO. Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms in vitro. Lasers Med Sci 2013;28(3):859-64.
Konopka K, Goslinski T. Photodynamic therapy in dentistry. J Dent Res 2007;86(8):694-707.
Meisel P, Kocher T. Photodynamic therapy for periodontal diseases: state of the art. J Photochem Photobiol B 2005;79(2):159-70.
Allaker RP, Douglas CW. Novel antimicrobial therapies for dental plaque–related diseases. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009;33(1):8-13.
Wood S, Metcalf D, Devine D, Robinson C. Erythrosine is a potential photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy of oral plaque biofilms. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;57(4):680-4.
Costa AC, de Campos Rasteiro VM, Pereira CA, da Silva Hashimoto ES, Beltrame, MJr., Junqueira JC, Jorge AO. Susceptibility of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to erythrosine- and LED-mediated photodynamic therapy, Arch Oral Biol. 2011 Nov;56(11):1299-305.
Costa AC, Chibebe Junior J, Pereira CA, Machado AK, Beltrame Junior M, Junqueira JC, et al. Susceptibility of planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans to photodynamic therapy with a light-emitting diode. Braz Oral Res 2010;24(4):413-8.
Wilson M. Lethal photosensitisation of oral bacteria and its potential application in the photodynamic therapy of oral infections. Photochem Photobiol Sci 2004;3(5):412-8.
Trindade FZ, Pavarina AC, Ribeiro AP, Bagnato VS, Vergani CE, Costa CA. Toxicity of photodynamic therapy with LED associatedto Photogem: an in vivo study. Lasers Med Sci 2012;27(2):403-11.
Wainwright M, Crossley KB. Methylene blue - a therapeutic dye for all seasons? J Chemother 2002;14(5):431-43.
Tavares A, Carvalho CM, Faustino MA, Neves MG, Tome JP,Tome AC, et al. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: study of bacterial recovery viability and potential development of resistance after treatment. Mar Drugs 2010;8(1):91-105.
de Freitas MT, Soares TT, Aragao MG, Lima RA, Duarte S, Zanin IC. Effect of Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy on Mono and Multi-Species Cariogenic Biofilms: A Literature Review. Photomed Laser Surg. 2017 May;35(5):239-45
Cieplik F, Buchalla W, Hellwig E, Al-Ahmad A, Hiller KA, Maisch T, Karygianni L. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy as an adjunct for treatment of deep carious lesions-a systematic review. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2017 Jun;18:54-62
Paschoal MA, Tonon CC, Spolidorio DM, Bagnato VS, Giusti JS, Santos-Pinto L. Photodynamic potential of curcumin and blue LED against Streptococcus mutans in a planktonic culture. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2013;10(3):313-9.
Balouiri M, Sadiki M, Ibnsouda SK. Methods for in vitro evaluating antimicrobial activity: a review. J Pharm Anal 2016;6(2):71-9.
Zanin IC, Goncalves RB, Junior AB, Hope CK, Pratten J. Susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans biofilms to photodynamic therapy: an in vitro study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005(2);56:324-30.
Engelmann FM, Mayer I, Gabrielli DS, Toma HE, Kowaltowski AJ, Araki K, et al. Interaction of cationic meso-porphyrins with liposomes, mitochondria and erythrocytes. J Bioenerg Biomembr 2007;39(2):175-85.
Marsh PD, Bevis RA, Newman HN, Hallsworth AS, Robinson C, Weatherell JA. Antibacterial activity of some plaque-disclosing agents and dyes.Caries Res1989;23(5):348-50.
Savellano MD, Hasan T. Targeting cells that overexpress the epidermal growth factor receptor with polyethylene glycolated BPD verteporfin photosensitizer immunoconjugates. Photochem Photobiol. 2003 Apr;77(4):431-9.
Castano AP, Demidova TN, Hamblin MR. Mechanisms in photodynamic therapy: part two-cellular signaling, cell metabolism and modes of cell death, Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2005 Mar;2(1):1-23.
Esper MÂLR, Junqueira JC, Uchoa AF, Bresciani E, Rastelli ANS, Navarro RS, Gonçalves SEP. Photodynamic inactivation of planktonic cultures and Streptococcus mutans biofilms for prevention of white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment: An in vitro investigation. Am J of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 2019;155(2):243-53.
Metcalf D, Robinson C, Devine D, Wood S. Enhancement of erythrosine-mediated photodynamic therapy of Streptococcus mutans biofilms by light fractionation. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006;58(1):190-2.
Habiboallah G, Mahdi Z, Mahbobeh NN, Mina ZJ, Sina F, Majid Z. Bactericidal effect of visible light in the presence of erythrosine on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum compared with diode laser, an in vitro study. Laser Ther 2014;23(4):263-71.
Nagata JY, Hioka N, Kimura E, Batistela VR, Terada RS, Graciano AX, et al. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy for dental caries: evaluation of the photosensitizers used and light source properties. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2012;9(2):122-31.
Silva JR, Cardoso G, Maciel RR, de Souza NC. Morphological alterations on Citrobacter freundii bacteria induced by erythrosine dye and laser light. Lasers Med Sci 2015;30(1):469-73.
Ishiyama K, Nakamura K, Ikai H, Kanno T, Kohno M, Sasaki K, et al. Bactericidal action of photogenerated singlet oxygen from photosensitizers used in plaque disclosing agents. PLoS One 2012;7(5):e37871.
Fracalossi C, J.Y. Nagata JY, D.S. Pellosi DS, R.S. Terada RS, N. Hioka N, M.L. Baesso ML, Sato F, Rosalen PL, Caetano W, Fujimaki M. Singlet oxygen production by combining erythrosine and halogen light for photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2016 Sep;15:127-32.
Sudhakara Reddy R, Ramya K, Tatapudi R, Gudapati S, Sai Madhavai N, Sai Kiran C. Photo dynamic therapy in oral diseases. Int J Biol Med Res 2012;3(2):1875-83.
Plaetzer K, Krammer B, Berlanda J, Berr F, Kiesslich T.Photophysics and photochemistry of photodynamic therapy: fundamental aspects. Lasers Med Sci. 2009 Mar;24(2):259-68.